Difference Between Makki and Madani Verses (Ayah)

Difference Between Makki and Madani Verses (Ayah)

Quran is the book through which believers and non believers both seek guidance. It consists of different chapters and verses which was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) in sections.The Quran continuously came down to Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) from the beginning of the Prophet-hood to the time shortly before the death with a time span of over twenty years.  

To clearly understand the message of Quran, it is important to know the difference between the Makki and Madani revelations. As Quran is the key to the teachings of Islam and it is important to the muslims, many of the Caliphs and Muslim scholars have devoted their efforts and time in this area of study.

Difference Between Makki and Madani Revelations

Majorly there are three opinions or point of view in regards to the difference between Makki and Madani verses or revelations which are stated below.

  1. Everything revealed to the Prophet Muhammad before the Hijrah (migration) to Madina is considered a Makki ayah or a verse and everything revealed to the Prophet Muhammad after the Hijrah (migration) is considered  as a Madani ayah or verse. It is also important to understand the Makki phase lasted 13 years, starting from 622 AD and the Madani period lasted 10 years, starting from 635 AD. There is an agreement of most scholars of Islam on this distinction of Makki and Madani revelations.
  2. The second opinion regarding the Makki and Madani ayah or verses is based upon the location of the revelation. Therefore if the ayah or verse was revealed in Makkah, it is considered as a Makki ayah and if the ayah or verse was revealed in Madina it is considered as a Madani ayah or verse.
  3. The third opinion regarding the difference between Makki and Madani ayah is the theme of the ayah or whom it refers to. I.e. if it refers to the mushrekeen, it is considered a Makki ayah or verse and vice versa.

There are many general styles and attributes given to Makki and Madani Ayah.

THE FEATURES OF MAKKI REVELATIONS:

The Quranic revelations were brought by Jibraeel (A.S) to the Prophet Muhammad to spread the message of Islam by the order of Allah (SWT).The revelations of the Makki verses or the ayah represent the first period of the Islamic movement lead by the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) before the event of the Hijrah. Theses revelations include verses revealed in Taa’if and other surrounding areas of the Makkah. The fundamentals were basically established among other things in the most of the Makki ayah or verses. The theme of the Makki ayah include: Tawheed, rectifying ‘aqeedah, belief in ghaib, stories of Ambiyaa, Hell/Paradise, stories of the past. Makki Surahs tend to have short verses but, contain profound meanings.

THE FEATURES OF MADINA REVELATIONS

As Madani ayah or verses are those verses which were revealed to the prophet by Jibraeel (A.S) by the order of Allah (SWT) after the Hijrah. These verses include the verses which were revealed during the battles (Ghazwah), as well as those which were revealed during and after the Fateh Makkah and   farewell pilgrimage. These revelations are consider Madani because they are revealed in the second phase of the Islamic movement. In which the stone for a welfare Islamic state was set. The theme of the Madani ayah include: Rules/Regulations regarding issues i.e. battles, war, Salaah. Madani themes tend to address ahlul-kitaab (people of the book), hypocrites (except for Surah ‘Ankaboot) and so forth. Every Surah that mentions ‘hudood’ (punishments) are Madani.

There 82 Makki Surah and 20 Madani Surah in the Holy Quran. The remaining 12 Surah are subjet to difference of opinion between the different Islamic Scholars. These Surah include Surah Al-Fatihah, Surah Ar-ra’ad, Surah as-Swaff, At-taghaabun, Al-Mutafiffeen, Al-Qadr, al-Bayyinah, az-Zilzaal, Surah At-Tawheed (Al-Ikhlas), Al-Falaq and An-Naas.

 

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